Download Animal and Human Calorimetry by J. A. McLean PDF

By J. A. McLean

This quantity offers a accomplished survey of the speculation, perform, and strategies of calorimetry as utilized to the research of power metabolism in people and animals. Calorimetry is used to estimate dietary necessities of guy and farm farm animals and to guage diversified meals. it's also a robust device utilized in study into primary dietary and physiological lifestyles techniques and within the evaluate of stresses imposed through irregular or serious environments. it truly is at present being utilized in quite a few branches of clinical study and will be used as a diagnostic device in hospitals for research of metabolic issues. The authors speak about either direct calorimetry, which measures warmth loss at once, and oblique calorimetry, the place warmth loss is inferred by means of dimension of a few of the chemical byproducts of metabolism. furthermore, tips is supplied to the instrumentation, technical difficulties, and precautions essential to receive actual calorimetric measurements.

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Example text

Beckman thermometer Cover Firing plug Matched thermistors Thermometer 'Insulated', lid Calorimeter can containing the 'bomb' and water Oxygen inlet valve Stirrer Electrode assembly with platinum fuse and cotton wick Earth-return contact Crucible containing sample pellet Circulating water pump Electrode heaters Bomb calorimetry 27 thermistor, its electrical resistance alters and the bridge is unbalanced. In practice the change is usually brought about by the lower temperature of the water in the jacket with respect to that in the calorimeter vessel.

It is questionable whether they are preferable to the earlier estimates. The values given by Ben-Porat et al. (1983) are derived from a thermodynamic consideration of the heats of combustion and formation of the compounds involved in oxidising protein to urea. Dargol'tz (1973) and Braefield and Llewellyn (1982) also gave recommended values for use in metabolic measurements on birds; these are based on uric acid as the primary waste product and are characterised by lower values for the respiratory quotient and for the oxygen consumed per gram of urinary nitrogen.

0 W 34 Calorific equivalents effect of the mixture of amino-acids in protein reduces the variation and a set of values can be selected which is reasonably representative of the metabolism of protein to urine. It is therefore possible, from measurement of the quantity of urinary nitrogen, to estimate not only the amount of protein metabolised but also the amounts of oxygen consumed and of carbon dioxide produced in association with the protein. The remaining (non-protein) parts of the total oxygen and carbon dioxide are associated with fat and carbohydrate metabolism, and their contributions to the total heat may be calculated as already described.

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