By Martin G. St. John Sutton, Alan R. Maniet, Jerry Blaivas, David A. McGowan, David Gordon, Stuart Stanton
Clinically suitable emphasis the following presents the reader with an authoritative evaluate of what strategies can be found and what photographs will be bought. The multiplane probe, paediatric and 3D probes, and colour circulate Doppler are integrated.
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Additional resources for An Atlas of Multiplane Transesophageal Echocardiography
In the early days of M-mode echocardiography, the mitral valve was frequently the only discernible cardiac structure identified,1 thus the diagnosis of mitral stenosis could be made reliably by non-invasive means. 2–7 The notorious mitral valve prolapse syndrome was recognized and perpetuated by echocardiography. Doppler echocardiography together with two-dimensional imaging has provided the physiological assessment of mitral valvular disease for quantifying the degree of stenosis and regurgitation.
Consistent use of the same sector orientation and depth of field allows rapid recognition of cardiac anatomy and abnormalities of cardiac dimension, once expertise is gained in transesophageal echocardiography. When the transducer is passed to approximately 50–55 cm from the incisor teeth, the probe is in the stomach and imaging may begin. Starting the examination in the stomach gives the operator the knowledge and assurance that there is no gross esophageal or gastric pathology, if the probe passes without significant complication.
References 1. Frazin L, Talano JV, Stephanides L, et al. Esophageal echocardiography. Circulation 1976;54:102–8. 2. Souquet J, Hanrath P, Zittelli L, et al. Transesophageal phased-array for imaging the heart. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 1982;29:707–12. 3. Hanrath P, Schüter M, Langestein BA, et al. Transesophageal horizontal and sagittal imaging of the heart with a phased-array system: initial clinical results. In: Hanrath P, Bleifeld W, Souquet J (eds). Cardiovascular Diagnosis by Ultrasound. Martinus Nijhoff: Publishing: London, 1982:280.