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By Birkhoff G.D.

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V) Positive leaders can move either continuously or intermittently (as seen in time-resolved optical records), whereas negative leaders are always stepped when they progress in virgin air. 5 Upward Lightning Discharges Upward lightning, as opposed to downward lightning, would not occur if the grounded strike object were not present. Hence, it can be considered to be initiated by the object. 8 Examples of two types of positive lightning current waveforms observed by Berger et al. (1975): (a) a microsecond-scale waveform (right-hand panel) and a sketch (left-hand panel) illustrating the type of lightning that might have led to its production.

Lin, Y. , and Krider, E. P. (1976). Effects of 200 km propagation in Florida lightning return stroke electric fields. Radio Science, 11: 985–990. Uman, M. A. (2001). The Lightning Discharge, pp. 1–377. Dover Publications, New York. 1 Introduction The finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method (Yee 1966) is one of the most widely used electromagnetic computation methods for a variety of electromagnetic problems. The FDTD method uses the central difference approximation to Maxwell’s curl equations, which are Faraday’s law and Ampere’s law, in the time domain.

Journal of Geophysical Research, 102 (D6): 6987–7006. , and Uman, M. A. (2001). Return stroke transmission line model for speed near and equal that of light. Geophysical Research Letters, 28 (18): 3593–3596. Uman, M. , McLain, D. , and Krider E. P. (1975). The electromagnetic radiation from a finite antenna. American Journal of Physics, 43: 33–38. Uman, M. , Swanberg, C. , Tiller, J. , Lin, Y. , and Krider, E. P. (1976). Effects of 200 km propagation in Florida lightning return stroke electric fields.

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