By R.M. Marston
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Extra info for 110 Waveform Generator Projects for the Home Constructor
OUTPUT (LEVEL) Fig. 4. 1 kHz variable-slope op-amp ramp generator above circuit can be modified as a fixed-frequency (1 kHz) variableslope ramp generator. The slopes of the output waveform are controlled by Rt. 9 ms. 4, which enables the frequency to be set to precisely 1 kHz. The output signal amplitude is fully variable via R6. 4 generate their waveforms directly from timing capacitor Cx. Since this capacitor is charged exponentially, the output waveforms are inevitably slightly non-linear, the degree of non-linearity being proportional to the amplitude of the output signals.
Here, 30 SQUARE AND PULSE GENERA TORS Cx alternately charges via Ri and the top half of R2 and via Dx, and discharges via D2 -R3 and the lower half of R2. Note that the sum of the two timing periods is virtually constant, so the operating frequency is almost independent of the setting of R2. 5 TO 15V + V E OUT Fig. 18. 2 kHz The 555 astable circuit can be gated 'on' or 'off, via either a switch or an electronic signal, in a variety of ways. c. via a switch. 19a and b circuits are gated via the pin 4 (reset) terminal.
T. turns off again, Cx starts to recharge via Rx -R2, and so the sequence repeats ad infinitum. 1 circuit, and this sawtooth can be fed t o external circuits via potentiometer Rs and buffer transistors Q2 -Q3. i • The operating frequency 54 TRIANGLE, RAMP AND SAWTOOTH GENERA TORS 55 can be varied from less than one cycle per minute to over 100 kHz by changing the Cx value. Reducing the C\ value increases the frequency, and vice versa. t. circuit can be made to generate a linear sawtooth waveform by charging its timing capacitor ( C i ) from a constant-current source, as 9V T O 1 2 V + V E Fig.